Take a shot of bourbon.
Likely, you’ll feel an immediate burn in your mouth and throat. Give it a few seconds. Your body temperature starts to rise. Your cheeks flush.
If you take another drink, there might be some dizziness, too.
There are effects of drinking alcohol that you can feel pretty much immediately. But there’s an entire field of study that takes a harder look at the effects of alcohol under the surface — specifically when it comes to the bacteria in our guts.